Biomarkers in decision-making for early as well as advanced heart failure are not explored in science as much as they should be, so researchers examined classification of various molecular and biochemical markers as they pertain to clinical relevancy in congestive heart failure; the biomarkers reflect pathophysiologic pathways that help diagnose diseases of the heart, and the role of miRNA in heart failure diagnosis is a promising area of research.

Reference: Mohan IK, Baba KSSS, Iyyapu R, Thirumalasetty S, Satish OS. Advances in congestive heart failure biomarkers. Adv Clin Chem. 2023;112:205-248. doi: 10.1016/bs.acc.2022.09.005. Epub 2022 Nov 4. PMID: 36642484.