This study examined whether corneal nerve fractal dimension (CNFrD) can differentiate peripheral neuropathies of different etiology. The study included 90 patients with peripheral neuropathy, including 34 with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). In patients with CIDP, compared to healthy controls, corneal nerve fiber density (P=0.004-0.0001) and corneal nerve fiber length (P=0.05-0.0001) were significantly lower, with a further significant reduction among subgroups. CNFrD was significantly lower in patients with CIDP compared to health controls and patients with HIV-sensory neuropathy (SN; P=0.02-0.0009) and in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared to healthy controls and patients with HIV-SN, chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, or CIDP (P=0.001-0.0001). “Various peripheral neuropathies are characterized by a comparable degree of corneal nerve loss. Assessment of corneal nerve topology by CNFrD could be useful in differentiating neuropathies based on the pattern of loss,” the authors wrote.