Researchers performed a systematic review and analysis of the dietary intake of adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and found that the diets of patients with IBD contained inadequate amounts in all the assessed categories.
According to the authors, while trials explore dietary manipulation in IBD treatment, “there has been no comprehensive systematic review of the dietary intake of adults with IBD.” The results of this study, then, provide an improved baseline understanding of the IBD patient population.
Researchers collected cohort, case–control, or cross-sectional studies that recorded usual dietary intake in adults from the CINAHL, Embase, Medline, and Scopus databases from January 1, 2000 to September 25, 2020. Results were reported as weighted mean intake for: all adults with IBD; Crohn’s disease; ulcerative colitis; active disease; remission; males; females. A random-effects meta-analysis model was used to compare IBD group intake with healthy individuals.
Nineteen total studies were included in the final meta-analysis. Reviewers found that all subgroups of adults with IBD consumed inadequate energy (mean intake, 1,980 ± 130 kcal), fiber (14 ± 4 g), folate (246 ± 33 mg), and calcium (529 ± 114 mg) per day. Further, intake of breads and cereals, legumes, fruit, vegetables and dairy was inadequate. Notably, adults with IBD consumed significantly less dietary fiber relative to healthy individuals (standardized mean difference = −0.59).
Ultimately, this review provided better fundamental understanding of the dietary intake of adults with IBD. Given the dietary inadequacies found in the patients with IBD, the study stated that further research is needed “to improve diet quality and increase understanding of factors influencing dietary intake in IBD.”