A healthy diet rich in whole fruits and sparse on fruit juice can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), according to a study published in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.
Fruit intake is inversely linked with the development of T2DM; however, less is understood about the protective mechanisms associated with fruit protecting against the disease. In this study, researchers assessed 7,675 Australian patients (45% males), all of whom were participants in the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study. The researchers analyzed fruit and fruit juice intake using a frequency question at study baseline. They employed logistic and linear regression models to evaluate the following: fasting plasma glucose; 2-h post-load plasma glucose; HOMA2 of β-cell function (HOMA2-%β); HOMA2 of insulin sensitivity (HOMA2-%S); fasting insulin levels at baseline; and the presence of diabetes at follow-up, which in this study was conducted at five and 12 years.
According to the results, total fruit intakes were inversely correlated with serum insulin and HOMA2-%β, and positively linked with HOMA2-%S at baseline. The researchers observed that participants with a moderate intake of whole fruits had 36% lower odds of having diabetes at five years. They noted that associations with 12-year outcomes were not statistically significant.
“A healthy diet including whole fruits, but not fruit juice, may play a role in mitigating T2DM risk,” the researchers concluded.
Keywords: 2-h post-load plasma glucose, Fasting plasma glucose