A study found that first-trimester fasting plasma glucose (FPG) is an independent risk factor for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The results were published in Endocrine.

In this study, researchers retrospectively assessed data on 48,444 pregnant women that were collected between 2017 and 2019. They used logistic regression to discern any correlations between first-trimester FPG and GDM and adverse pregnancy outcomes and developed a nomogram model to predict the risk of GDM.

Mean first-trimester FPG was 4.62 ± 0.42 mmol/L. Fourteen percent of pregnancies developed GDM. The analysis showed that first trimester FPG was markedly linked with risk of GDM, (primary) cesarean section, macrosomia, growth hormone deficiency, and babies who are large for gestational age (LGA). Moreover, the researchers noted, the risks of GDM, primary cesarean section, and LGA increased as early as four months for patients with first trimester FPG.

Multivariable analysis demonstrated that the risks of GDM increased starting at a FPG level of 4.19-4.63 mmol/L. First trimester FPG was also associated with the risks of cesarean section, macrosomia and LGA.

“FPG in the first trimester was an independent risk factor for GDM which can be used as a screening test for identifying pregnancies at risk of GDM and adverse pregnancy outcomes,” the researchers concluded.

Keywords: Pregnancy Complications, GDM, Metabolic Diseases in Pregnancy, The First Trimester FPG

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34342804/