A study aimed to investigate serum glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and serum neurofilament light chain (NfL) levels as potential discriminative biomarkers between benign relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (BRRMS) and aggressive relapsing-remitting MS (ARRMS). The findings were published in the journal Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders.
Researchers assessed Serum GFAP and NfL levels were analyzed in 34 patients with BRRMS, 29 patients with ARRMS, and 14 healthy controls by using Single Molecule Array. Patients with ARRMS had been treated with disease-modifying treatments (DMT).
According to the results, serum GFAP levels in both BRRMS and ARRMS were notably higher compared to healthy controls. The results showed that serum GFAP levels did not differ between BRRMS and ARRMS. Moreover, there were no statistical differences observed in NfL levels between BRRMS, ARRMS and healthy controls. Overall, GFAP level was significantly higher in BRRMS without DMT than in those BRRMS patients who had used DMT.
“We found elevated levels of serum GFAP in both BRRMS and ARRMS compared to healthy controls, reflecting astrocytic activation. Serum NfL did not differ between BRRMS and ARRMS, probably due to the stable inflammatory phase of the disease and effective DMT use in ARRMS,” the researchers concluded.
They added that, “Single serum NfL and GFAP measurements cannot separate a patient with BRRMS from effectively treated ARRMS after a long history of the disease, thus consecutive samples are needed in the follow-up.”
Keywords: Benign multiple sclerosis, Biomarker, GFAP, Multiple sclerosis, Neurofilament