For the purpose of exploring the benefits as well as the drawbacks of biomarkers guidance in daily clinical management of patients with heart failure, researchers classified biomarkers as such: myocardial stretch and biomechanical stress; cardiac myocyte injury; systemic, adipocyte tissue, and microvascular inflammation; cardiac fibrosis and matrix remodeling; neurohumoral activation and oxidative stress; and more, and provide directions with the aim of improving the predictive ability of multiple biomarker models.

Reference: Berezin AE, Berezin AA. Biomarkers in Heart Failure: From Research to Clinical Practice. Ann Lab Med. 2023 May 1;43(3):225-236. doi: 10.3343/alm.2023.43.3.225. Epub 2022 Dec 22. PMID: 36544334; PMCID: PMC9791010.